Welcome to Makassar

Makassar is capital city of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This city has some interesting places, excotic islands, beautiful beach, atractive art and culture, many kinds of entertainment, and delicious foods. Makassar is also a gateway to other famous places in Sulawesi like Tana Toraja, Takabonerate Marine Park, Bunaken Marine Park, and Wakatobi Marine Park.

Makassar can be reached through airway or seaway. There are some direct flight to Makassar, one hour only from Bali and Surabaya, two hours from Jakarta, and three hours from Kuala Lumpur. More information

Fort Rotterdam, The Turtle Fortress

MAKASSARESE called this building as panyua fortress, it means turtle. The architecture of Fort Rotterdam is unique, resembles a turtle going down to the sea. Althought built in the 16th century, conditions of the fortress is still solid and well.

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Short History of Fort Rotterdam

Rotterdam Fortress originally called Ujungpandang Fortress. Built in 1545 when Gowa Kingdom led by Tumapa'risi Kallona, the nineth king. Or a year before the renovation of Somba Opu Fortress. This fortress was built face toward Makassar Strait.

The development of Ujungpandang Fortress finished when Gowa led by Tunipalangga Ulaweng, the tenth king. In the same manner as Somba Opu Fortress, Ujungpandang Fortress is originally first built by clay. If Somba Opu function as the centre of kingdom, Ujungpandang fortress function as a military base.

In 1634, I Mangngarangi Daeng Manrabia or Sultan Alauddin, the 14th king, completed the building with stone wall. A year later, he added a gate in the front side of the fortress. So that the fortress built resemble a turtle. Makassar people called the building as panyua.

As a maritime country, which directly face toward sea, the King of Gowa aware the importance of defense systems. Ujungpandang Fortress is one of 17 fortresses that built along the coastline of Makassar. Some others, such as The Panakkukang Fortress, Anak Gowa Fortress, and the Barombong Fortress.

48 years after VOC jail the influence over Sulawesi, Makassar War was uproar between 1655 to 1669. Native resistance to the company that want to monopolize trading lines led by 16th king, I Mallombasi Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Bonto Mangappe or Sultan Hasanuddin.

Ujungpandang Fortress seized by VOC on Tuesday, November 18, 1667. Gowa troops who are still alive fleed and join at Somba Opu Fortress in the southern of Ujungpandang Fortress. Two years later, Sultan Hasanuddin and his people which survived in the Somba Opu Fortress was lost and sign the Bungaya Agreement.

After that defeat, 16 fortresses that built along the coastline were destroyed by Dutch army. Including Somba Opu Fortress. VOC leaving only one Fortress, that is Ujungpandang Fortress. Than, it was used as a base of their military defense. Leader of Dutch army, Admiral Cornelis Janszoon Speelman, changed the name of Ujungpandang Fortress to Fort Rotterdam.(*)



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