Welcome to Makassar

Makassar is capital city of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This city has some interesting places, excotic islands, beautiful beach, atractive art and culture, many kinds of entertainment, and delicious foods. Makassar is also a gateway to other famous places in Sulawesi like Tana Toraja, Takabonerate Marine Park, Bunaken Marine Park, and Wakatobi Marine Park.

Makassar can be reached through airway or seaway. There are some direct flight to Makassar, one hour only from Bali and Surabaya, two hours from Jakarta, and three hours from Kuala Lumpur. More information

Somba Opu, Strongest Fortress

ENGLISH scientist, Alfred William Wallace, stated, the Somba Opu is strongest fortress that ever built by the citizen of Indonesian archipelago (nusantara). This fort is the witness of Sultan Hasanuddin and his people's persistance to maintain the sovereignty of their country.

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History of Somba Opu Fortress

The development of Somba Opu Fortress strated in 1525 when Gowa Kingdom was led by Tumapa'risi Kallona (1510-1546), the nineth king. This fortress was first built with clay. Became a capital of Gowa Kingdom. Inside the fortress was built a palace of king, patrician houses, houses of the officers, and trade center.

At that time, the area where Somba Opu Fortress stand (Makassar), was became one of the largest seaport city in Asia, which controled the trade in Asia and Pacific region. Great port of Makassar became an international hub by phinisi ships and boats from the Arab foreign trade, and China.

When Gowa Kingdom led by I Manriwagau Daeng Bonto Karaeng Lakiung Tunipalangga Ulaweng (1546-1565), the tenth king, the wall of Somba Opu Fortres was changed the appearance to bricks. The glue betwen bricks was not cement but egg white.Since that time, Somba Opu became a very strong fortress.

Meanwhile, in 1596 the Netherlands explorer under leadership of Cornelis de Houtman arrived in Port of Port, western Java. Six years later, the VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) or the Netherland company on east India, was established. The company begun to trade to Sulawesi in 1607. In 1615, VOC ask trade monopoly. But the Sultan of Gowa rejected.

Makassar War happened from 1655 to 1669. At that time, Gowa Kingdom was led by Mallombassi Daeng Mattawang Karaeng Bonto Mangappe or Sultan Hasanuddin. The Netherland company compeled to monopoly the archipelago trading point. But Sultan Hasanuddin rejected the aggression than arouse fierce resistance.

Entering the midle of 1669, Gowa troops surrounded inside the wall and completely against from the fortress. Fortress can not be seized by the Dutch troops. Cannon ball that shoot by the Dutch was not able to brooke the walls. However, total isolation and blockade against the Somba Opu fortress eventually make the Gowa troops weak.

In Friday, June 24, 1669, thousands of people threatened by death inside the fortress. Sultan Hasanuddin forced to accept the surrender option by signing an agreement in Bungaya. It is an area in northern of the fortress. So that was called Bungaya Agreement. Contents of the agreement were emphasize the monopoly rights of the Netherlands company

After the agreement, all indigenous people were chased away from Makassar. Many peoples were also sentenced to death. Since that year, Gowa were entering to the colonialism era, followed the other areas in the archipelago which has first fallen under the Netherlands power.

After the defeat of Gowa, Netherlands troops destroyed Somba Opu. Ruins of the fortress was found by some archeologists in the 1980s. Walls buried in the soil. In general, condition of the fortress was worst. In 1990, the Indonesian government decided to excavate some parts of that walls.(*)



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